Healthy City Project is a process of cultivating abilities and self-determination of citizens' health, which aims to promote national health; with the commitment of health from community, through the cooperation cross departments of the government, it makes inspiration for community people to participate actively, combining community resources, contributing political decisions, promoting innovation activities, continuous forming healthy community to achieve the purpose of health for all.
In 1984, WHO proposed the concept of healthy promotion as a process of increasing people's ability of controlling and promoting health, and its principle of paying attention to improving community environment, to cultivating people's ability and empowerment, to inspiring community participation and effective investment, to maintain and promote community health. Hancock and Duhl (1986) have made a definition of Healthy City, believing that Healthy City means: residents with certain consensus, have willing to change health-related environment, not the health level of individual up to the standard.
Therefore in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion by WHO in 1986, 5 strategies of health promotion including:
(1) Formula a healthy public policy, (2) form supportive environment, (3) strengthen the action of community, (4) develop individual ability and (5) adjust the orientation of healthy service.
Also in the Lisbon conference (1986), the characteristics of health are even clear: 1. Health is a social affair, not only a medical affair. 2. Health is the responsibility for all the sectors in a city. 3. Health should be under the supervision of professional staffs from natural science, society, aesthetics and environment. 4. Health is presentation of community residents participation and cooperation of public and private sectors; in the conference it also made the resolution of jointly developing city health and starting Healthy City Project in 1986, officially starting health promotion activities in 11 cities in Europe, until now there are over 4,000 cities in the world implementing Healthy City Project.
WHO believes that ideal Healthy City should have 11 functions as follows:
1. Clean, safe and high-qualified living environment; 2. Stable and sustainable developing ecosystem; 3. strong and mutual supportive community; 4. Community with high participation in decisions affecting life and welfares; 5. Able to meet the basic demands of city residents; 6. Residents able to access various experiences and resources through multichannel; 7. Diversity urban economic activities with vitality and innovation; 8. Able to preserve historic places and respect native cultures; 9. A unique city with long-term development plans; 10. Provide healthy and medical service of quality to residents; 11. Residents with good health condition.
According to the date from WHO, it's expected that 61% of global population living in the urban areas in 2025. However, high level of urban development may bring many social, healthy and ecological problems; the required responsibility and ability have been beyond the burden of healthy department. Therefore, to resolve the healthy problems of urban residents effectively, it's necessary to make an integration of various departments. To assist building the measurable Healthy City Indicators for the world, WHO made 32 items of indicators which can allow basic measures for Healthy City in specific quantification.